Issue One 2023
2023, Vol. 10, issue 1, (January)
Effect of gender and age on the maximal bite force and the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles
Introduction: Chewing directly depends on the function of the masticatory muscles. Maximal bite force and surface EMG are important determinants for the masticatory function.
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between gender and age and the bite force and electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in young subjects.
Material and Methods: The study included 110 individuals of mean age 17.08 ± 6.02 years: 43 males and 67 females. Surface EMG (s EMG) was performed on anterior temporalis and masseter muscles on the right and left side to all the 110 subjects. The bite force was assessed on 68 of them using strain-gauge transducer. The statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 23.0.
Results: There was no significant difference between the maximal bite force between men and women both on the left and the right side. The bite force correlated significantly with age both on left and right. The values of the EMG potentials of the masseter muscle did not differ between male and female subjects both on left and right. As for the temporalis muscle the values on the left side in women were significantly higher than in men (P<0.05). The values of the right temporalis muscle did not differ. A significant positive correlation was found between the age and EMG activity of the left temporalis muscle (P<0.01) and of the left masseter muscle (P<0.05). On the right was not found significant correlation between EMG and age.
Conclusion: Both EMG and maximal bite force showed correlation with age. The left temporal muscle in women showed higher EMG values than in men.
Keywords: maximal bite force, surface electromyography, age, gender masticatory muscles