Journal of Medical and Dental Practice

www.medinform.bgISSN 2367-6795

Issue Two 2022

2022, Vol. 9, issue 2, (September)

Publisher: Medinform LTD
ISSN: 2367-6795
Pages: 1455-1518
Date of close: 2022/10/02

Literature Review

Oral Manifestations In Children Of The Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Literature Review


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder which affects how people communicate with others, learn, and behave. It is described as a “developmental disorder” , because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life and cause delays in many different ways. As a psychoneurological disorder, autism is characterized by self-isolation as a characteristic feature, as well as the presence of repetitive and stereotyped activities and interests, with a particular focus not on people, but on inanimate objects. This article aims to summarize and combine the latest information, available in scientific literature, in order to establish how ASD impacts the oral health of these patients. The search was was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Out of 250 articles, 45 are considered eligible.

Results: Various studies have investigated the relationship between the oral status of children with autism compared to healthy children, finding poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease in children with autism. It is expected that caries prevalence as well as gingivitis is higher in patients with ASD, due to difficulties in adequate brushing and flossing, as well as the lack of manual skills. Unusual oral habits include bruxism due to hyperactivity of the lower jaw, gingival picking,tongue thrusting, non nutritive chewing on objects such as gravel, cigarette butts, or pens tooth erosion due to regurgitation.

Conclusion: Children with ASD are more prone to the development of caries lesions, periodontal disease and other oral manifestations. All of these can be reduced by making a personalized prevention programe and treatment plan.

Keywords: caries, periodontal disease, children, autism specter disorder


Siyana Atanasova; Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University Varna, Bulgaria;

Corresponding Author:

Siyana Atanasova; Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University Varna, Bulgaria; Bul. Tsar Osvoboditel 84, Varna, Bulgaria ; +359887089508; Email this author